2018/02/17

DNA has no control in cellular processes

Alternative splicing points to Intelligent Design

Alternative splicing is a complex mechanism that helps us understand that DNA does not control cellular mechanisms. Many people still think that one gene encodes one protein. Actually, the whole idea of ​​DNA genes encoding something is completely incorrect, at least within eukaryotes. 

It is important to understand the principles of alternative splicing. Without going into deep scientific terminology, I will briefly explain how alternative splicing works.

The cell reads certain DNA sections from which it builds a so-called pre-mRNA. The cell modifies this RNA transcript using a complex protein complex called a spliseosome. The spliseosome will carefully cut off that pre-mRNA from certain sequences to construct exactly the RNA sequence required by the cell for the required protein production. From one and the same DNA sequence, the cell is thus capable of manufacturing up to thousands of different proteins using this technology. For example, using the fruit fly Dscam gene the cell can produce as many as 38,016 different proteins. Without changing the DNA sequence! In the human genome there are only about 19,600 DNA sequences used to protein production, that is, less than that of a roundworm, but the number of different proteins in our body is up to two million according to some estimates. The ingenious alternative splicing mechanism makes this possible. In recent years, it has also been found that even most long non-coding RNA molecules go through alternative splicing procedure.
 
Alternative splicing is guided and controlled by several epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation profiles, histone epigenetic markers, and epigenetic markers of non-coding RNA molecules known in more than 140 different types.

More than 90% of human DNA-genes are read into an alternative splicing procedure. The number has risen from year to year as the research progresses. It is a clever and complex  mechanism that allows the implementation of alternative programs in the cell and hence the whole organism morphology and other features. Knowing the alternative splicing mechanism will help us understand that DNA is a kind of library information in the cell that it needs to produce the necessary proteins and to transmit epigenetic information about the environment to the organism's cells. DNA is passive information that does not control anything. DNA genes may overlap or embed with each other. The cell chooses different  strands of the DNA and constructs complex RNAs. Organisms may actually modify their own genome with many different mechanisms. This is done by nutrition, climate, stress factors, sensory stimulus etc. It has also been found that even our thoughts and attitudes can modify our DNA.

The alternative splicing mechanism points out that all changes in organisms are based on the alternative epigenetic regulation of existing biological information OR for gradual but unavoidable information corruption, ie genetic degeneration (whereby the alternatives are reduced). Therefore there is no mechanism for evolution. So do not be lost, good people.